Austenitic steels have a lower yield strength than commonly used carbon steels; duplex steels have a higher yield strength than common carbon steels. The stress and strain are not proportional. Accumulation of corrosive pollutants and chlorides will be higher in sheltered locations; hence it might be necessary to choose a recommended grade from the next higher corrosion class. Comprehensive reviews of existing stress-strain models for structural steel have been presented by Huang , Foster  and Bruneau et al. For thin gauge steels for cold forming, no impact energy requirements are specified for material less than 6 mm thick. The stress-strain relationship does not have the clear distinction of a yield point and stainless steel 'yield' strengths for stainless steel are generally quoted in terms of a proof strength defined for a particular offset permanent strain (conventionally the 0.2% strain). Current design code limits for Y/T vary between 0.70 and 0.93, Table 2. Designers should note that yield strength reduces with increasing plate or section thickness (thinner material is worked more than thick material and working increases the strength). Considering the flexural reinforcements, results were consistent because after recording the yield strain, there was a little increase of the loading up to failure. The yield strength anomaly is also referred to as the "yield stress anomaly." Minimum values of yield strength and tensile strength are specified in the relevant product standard BS EN 10346. These new limits have been derived using exactly the same approach behind the Eurocode design rules, but crucially reduce the crack growth due to fatigue. BS EN ISO 9223:2012 Corrosion of metals and alloys, Corrosivity of atmospheres, Classification, determination and estimation. BSI, PD 6695-1-10:2009 Recommendations for the design of structures to BS EN 1993-1-10. 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